Kalsium sulfat | Ketahui pentingnya senyawa kimia ini dalam industri makanan serta kegunaan lainnya

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Tentang senyawa ini: kalsium sulfat

Kalsium Sulfat - Menyehatkan

Kalsium sulfat, juga dikenal sebagai kalsium sulfat dan hidrat terkait, adalah senyawa anorganik yang memiliki rumus CaSO4. Ini digunakan sebagai pengering dalam bentuk anhidrit (bentuk anhidrat).

Satu hidrat paling dikenal sebagai plester paris, sementara yang lain muncul secara alami sebagai plester mineral. Ini memiliki beberapa aplikasi di industri. Semua keadaan adalah padatan putih yang tidak larut dalam air. Air mengeras secara permanen karena kalsium sulfat.

CaSO4 (kalsium sulfat) terjadi secara alami dalam garam kalsium. Paling baik dikenali dalam keadaan dihidratnya, CaSO42H2O, sebagai gipsum, bubuk tidak berwarna atau putih.

Sulfat digunakan sebagai kondisioner tanah karena merupakan gipsum yang tidak dikalsinasi. Gipsum yang dikalsinasi digunakan dalam produksi reng, drywall, ubin, dan berbagai plester.

Ketika gipsum dipanaskan hingga sekitar 120 °C (250 °F), gipsum melepaskan tiga perempat airnya dan berubah menjadi CaSO4 hemihidrat.4.H2Oh, plester paris.

Plaster of Paris, jika digabungkan dengan air, dapat dipahat menjadi bentuk sebelum mengeras dengan mengkristal ulang menjadi dihidrat. Air tanah mungkin mengandung kalsium sulfat, yang menyebabkan kesadahan atau kekakuan yang tidak dapat dihilangkan dengan cara direbus.

Tonton video di bawah ini untuk mempelajari tentang kalsium sulfat:

Struktur Kristalografi dan Keadaan Hidrasi Kalsium Sulfat

Molekul ini memiliki tiga keadaan hidrasi yang berkorelasi dengan berbagai struktur kristalografi dan mineral:

  • Kasus4 (anhidrit): Dalam bentuk anhidrat; strukturnya mirip dengan struktur zirkonium ortosilikat (zirkon): Ca2+ memiliki koordinat 8, SO2-4 memiliki struktur tetrahedral, dan O memiliki koordinat 3.
  • Kasus4-2 jam2SALAH SATU: Dihidrat {gipsum dan selenit (mineral)}.
  • Kasus4.H2SALAH SATU: Hemihydrate, sering dikenal sebagai plaster of paris. Kadang-kadang hemihidrat tertentu dibedakan: α-hemihidrat dan β-hemihidrat.

Calsium sulfat Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) syarat masuk

  • Pualam
  • sulfat anhidrat dari kapur
  • batu gigi buatan
  • Kalsium sulfat
  • Kalsium sulfat (1:1), dihidrat
  • Kalsium sulfat (1:1), hemihidrat
  • Kalsium sulfat (2:1)
  • kalsium sulfat dihidrat
  • Kalsium sulfat, anhidrat
  • Kalsium sulfat dihidrat
  • Kalsium sulfat, hemihidrat
  • kalsium sulfat
  • plester gigi
  • Plester Gigi Buatan
  • kering
  • Gipsi
  • Dan memang begitu
  • plester gigi

Sifat fisik dan kimia kalsium sulfat

Nama propertinilai properti
Berat molekul136.14
Jumlah Donor Ikatan Hidrogen0
Hitungan Akseptor Ikatan Hidrogen4
Hitungan Bonus Bergulir0
massa yang tepat135.9143205
massa monoisotop135.9143205
Luas permukaan kutub topologi88,6 Ų
jumlah atom berat6
Posisi resmi0
Kompleksitas62.2
jumlah atom isotop0
Hitungan stereocenters dari atom yang ditentukan0
Menghitung pusat stereo dari atom yang tidak ditentukan0
Jumlah stereosenter ikatan yang ditentukan0
Jumlah stereosenter ikatan yang tidak ditentukan0
Jumlah unit yang terikat secara kovalen2
Senyawa ini dikanonisasiYa

Sifat eksperimental kalsium sulfat

Deskripsi Fisik

  • Kalsium Sulfat terjadi sebagai bubuk putih tidak berbau atau padatan kristal tidak berwarna. Kristal terkadang memiliki warna biru, abu-abu, atau kemerahan atau mungkin berwarna merah bata. Kepadatan: 2,96 g cm-3.
  • bubuk kering; bubuk kering, padatan lainnya; Bubuk Kering, Pelet atau Kristal Besar; Cairan; cairan, padatan lainnya; NKRA; Padat Lainnya; Pelet atau Kristal Besar; Pelet atau Kristal Besar, Cairan; butiran atau kristal besar, air atau pelarut padat basah; Padatan basah dengan air atau pelarut; Air atau pelarut Padatan basah, padatan lainnya
  • Putih sampai putih agak kekuningan, serbuk halus tidak berbau
  • Serbuk putih tidak berbau atau padatan kristal tidak berwarna. [Note: May have blue, gray, or reddish tinge
  • White hygroscopic powder or crystalline powder.

 

Production and Occurrence of Calcium Sulphate

The main sources of calcium sulfate are naturally occurring gypsum and anhydrite, which occur at many locations worldwide as evaporites. These may be extracted by open-cast quarrying or by deep mining. World production of natural gypsum is around 127 million tons per annum.

In addition to natural sources, calcium sulfate is produced as a by-product in a number of processes:

In flue-gas desulfurization, exhaust gasses from fossil-fuel power stations and other processes (e.g., cement manufacture) are scrubbed to reduce their sulfur oxide content, by injecting finely ground limestone: SO2 + 0.5 O2 + CaCO3 → CaSO4 + CO2

Related sulfur-trapping methods use lime and some produce an impure calcium sulfite, which oxidizes on storage to calcium sulfate.

In the production of phosphoric acid from phosphate rock, calcium phosphate is treated with sulfuric acid, and calcium sulfate precipitates. The product, called phosphogypsum is often contaminated with impurities making its use uneconomic.

In the production of hydrogen fluoride, calcium fluoride is treated with sulfuric acid, precipitating calcium sulfate.

In the refining of zinc, solutions of zinc sulfate are treated with hydrated lime to co-precipitate heavy metals such as barium.

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Calcium sulfate can also be recovered and reused from scrap drywall at construction sites.

These precipitation processes tend to concentrate radioactive elements in the calcium sulfate product. This issue is particular with the phosphate by-product since phosphate ores naturally contain uranium and its decay products such as radium-226, lead-210, and polonium-210.

Extraction of uranium from phosphorus ores can be economical on its own depending on prices in the uranium market or the separation of uranium can be mandated by environmental legislation and its sale is used to recover part of the cost of the process.

Calcium sulfate is also a common component of fouling deposits in industrial heat exchangers because its solubility decreases with increasing temperature (see the specific section on the retrograde solubility below).

 

The Retrograde Solubility of Calcium Sulfate

The dissolution of the different crystalline phases of calcium sulfate in water is exothermic and releases heat (decrease in Enthalpy: ΔH < 0). As an immediate consequence, to proceed, the dissolution reaction needs to evacuate this heat that can be considered as a product of the reaction.

If the system is cooled, the dissolution equilibrium will evolve towards the right according to the Le Chatelier principle and calcium sulfate will dissolve more easily. Thus, the solubility of calcium sulfate increases as the temperature decreases and vice versa.

If the temperature of the system is raised, the reaction heat cannot dissipate and the equilibrium will regress towards the left according to Le Chatelier principle. The solubility of calcium sulfate decreases as temperature increases.

This counter-intuitive solubility behavior is called retrograde solubility. It is less common than for most of the salts whose dissolution reaction is endothermic (i.e., the reaction consumes heat: increase in Enthalpy: ΔH > 0) and whose solubility increases with temperature.

Another calcium compound, calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2, portlandite) also exhibits a retrograde solubility for the same thermodynamic reason: because its dissolution reaction is also exothermic and releases heat.

So, to dissolve the maximum amount of calcium sulfate or calcium hydroxide in water, it is necessary to cool the solution down close to its freezing point instead of increasing its temperature.

Temperature dependence of the solubility of calcium sulfate (3 phases) in pure water.

The retrograde solubility of calcium sulfate is also responsible for its precipitation in the hottest zone of heating systems and for its contribution to the formation of scale in boilers along with the precipitation of calcium carbonate whose solubility also decreases when CO2 degasses from hot water or can escape out of the system.

 

The Uses of Calcium Sulfate

Calcium sulfate is mostly used to make stucco and Plaster of Paris. These applications take advantage of the fact that powdered and calcined calcium sulfate produces a molded paste after hydration and solidifies as crystalline calcium sulfate dihydrate.

It is also helpful that calcium sulfate is weakly water soluble and does not rapidly dissolve after solidification when in contact with water.

Uses of calcium sulfate in hydration and dehydration reactions

With judicious heating, gypsum converts to the partially dehydrated mineral called bassanite or plaster of Paris. This material has the formula CaSO4·(nH2O), where 0.5 ≤ n ≤ 0.8.

Temperatures between 100 and 150 °C (212–302 °F) are required to drive off the water within its structure. The details of the temperature and time depend on ambient humidity.

Temperatures as high as 170 °C (338 °F) are used in industrial calcination, but at these temperatures γ-anhydrite begins to form. The heat energy delivered to the gypsum at this time (the heat of hydration) tends to go into driving off the water (as water vapor) rather than increasing the temperature of the mineral, which rises slowly until the water is gone, then increases more rapidly.

The equation for the partial dehydration is: CaSO4·2 H2O   →   CaSO4·1/2 H2O + 1+1/2 H2O↑

The endothermic property of this reaction is relevant to the performance of drywall, conferring fire resistance to residential and other structures.

In a fire, the structure behind a sheet of drywall will remain relatively cool as water is lost from the gypsum, thus preventing (or substantially retarding) damage to the framing (through the combustion of wood members or loss of strength of steel at high temperatures) and consequent structural collapse.

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But at higher temperatures, calcium sulfate will release oxygen and act as an oxidizing agent. This property is used in aluminothermy.

In contrast to most minerals, which when rehydrated simply form liquid or semi-liquid pastes, or remain powdery, calcined gypsum has an unusual property: when mixed with water at normal (ambient) temperatures, it quickly reverts chemically to the preferred dihydrate form, while physically “setting” to form a rigid and relatively strong gypsum crystal lattice: CaSO4 · 1/2 H2O + 1+1/2 H2O   →   CaSO4 · 2 H2O

This reaction is exothermic and is responsible for the ease with which gypsum can be cast into various shapes including sheets (for drywall), sticks (for blackboard chalk), and molds (to immobilize broken bones, or for metal casting).

Mixed with polymers, it has been used as a bone repair cement. Small amounts of calcined gypsum are added to earth to create strong structures directly from cast earth, an alternative to adobe (which loses its strength when wet).

The conditions of dehydration can be changed to adjust the porosity of the hemihydrate, resulting in the so-called α- and β-hemihydrates (which are more or less chemically identical).

On heating to 180 °C (356 °F), the nearly water-free form, called γ-anhydrite (CaSO4·nH2O where n = 0 to 0.05) is produced. γ-Anhydrite reacts slowly with water to return to the dihydrate state, a property exploited in some commercial desiccants.

On heating above 250 °C, the completely anhydrous form called β-anhydrite or “natural” anhydrite is formed. Natural anhydrite does not react with water, even over geological timescales, unless very finely ground.

The variable composition of the hemihydrate and γ-anhydrite, and their easy inter-conversion, is due to their nearly identical crystal structures containing “channels” that can accommodate variable amounts of water or other small molecules such as methanol.

Uses of calcium Sulfate in the food industry

Calcium sulfate hydrates are used as a coagulant in products such as tofu. For the FDA, it is permitted in Cheese and Related Cheese Products; Cereal Flours; Bakery Products; Frozen Desserts; Artificial Sweeteners for Jelly & Preserves; Condiment Vegetables; and Condiment Tomatoes and some candies.

It is known in the E number series as E516, and the UN’s FAO knows it as a firming agent, a flour treatment agent, a sequestrant, and a leavening agent.

Use of calcium sulfate in dentistry

Calcium sulfate has a long history of use in dentistry. It has been used in bone regeneration as a graft material and graft binder (or extender) and as a barrier in guided bone tissue regeneration.

It is a biocompatible material and is completely resorbed following implantation. It does not evoke a significant host response and creates a calcium-rich milieu in the area of implantation.

Therapeutic Uses of Calcium Sulfate

The use of calcium sulfate (plaster of Paris) has been advocated to repair bony defects because of its unique capability of stimulating osteogenesis. Plaster of Paris can be used as a bony alloplastic and it can be analyzed histologically.

Sinus roentgenograms and technetium Tc 99m medronate bone scanning further support the use of plaster of Paris as an alloplastic and assess its osteogenic capacity when implanted in the frontal sinus of dogs; complete bone regeneration was demonstrated in six dogs within four to six months.

The use of plaster of Paris for bone reconstruction in the head and neck can be applied in surgery. The experience with plaster of Paris to date although limited shows it to be safe and highly encouraging as an effective bone allograft.

Other Uses of calcium sulfate

When sold at the anhydrous state as a desiccant with a color-indicating agent under the name Drierite, it appears blue (anhydrous) or pink (hydrated) due to impregnation with cobalt (II) chloride, which functions as a moisture indicator.

Up to the 1970s, commercial quantities of sulfuric acid were produced in Whitehaven (Cumbria, UK) from anhydrous calcium sulfate.

Upon being mixed with shale or marl, and roasted, the sulfate liberates sulfur dioxide gas, a precursor in sulfuric acid production, the reaction also produces calcium silicate, a mineral phase essential in cement clinker production.

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2 CaSO4 + 2 SiO2 → 2 CaSiO3 + 2 SO2 + O2

The plant made sulfuric acid by the “Anhydrite Process”, in which cement clinker itself was a by-product. In this process, anhydrite (calcium sulfate) replaces limestone in a cement raw mix, and under reducing conditions, sulfur dioxide is evolved instead of carbon dioxide.

The sulfur dioxide is converted to sulfuric acid by the Contact Process using a vanadium pentoxide catalyst.

  • CaSO4 + 2 Cas → CAS + 2CO2
  • 3 CaSO4 + CaS + 2 SiO2 → 2 Ca2SiO4 (belite) + 4 SO2
  • 3 CaSO4 + CaS → 4 CaO + 4 SO2
  • Ca2SiO4 + CaO → Ca3OSiO4 (alite)
  • 2 SO2 + O2 → 2 SO3 (in the presence of the catalyst vanadium pentoxide)
  • SO3 + H2O → H2SO4

Because of its use in an expanding niche market, the Whitehaven plant continued to expand in a manner not shared by the other Anhydrite Process plants. The anhydrite mine opened on 11/1/1955, and the acid plant started on 14/11/1955.

For a while in the early 1970s, it became the largest sulfuric acid plant in the UK, making about 13% of national production, and it was by far the largest Anhydrite Process plant ever built.

 

Toxicological Information of Calcium Sulfate – Side Effects of Calcium Sulphate

Exposure Routes: Inhalation, skin, and/or eye contact

Symptoms include:

  1. Irritation of the eyes, skin, and upper respiratory system
  2. Conjunctivitis
  3. Rhinitis
  4. Epistaxis (nosebleed)
  5. Inhalation Symptoms 
  6. Cough
  • Eye Symptoms: Redness
  • Ingestion Symptoms: Abdominal pain

Toxicological studies indicate the following:

  • Gypsum: Gypsum dust has an irritant action on mucous membranes of the respiratory tract & eyes, and there have been reports of conjunctivitis, chronic rhinitis, laryngitis, pharyngitis, impaired sense of smell & taste, bleeding from the nose, & reactions of tracheal & bronchial membranes in exposed workers.
  • Plaster of Paris: Because it hardens quickly after absorbing moisture, its ingestion may result in obstruction, particularly at the pylorus. To delay “setting,” drink glycerin or gelatin solutions, or large volumes of water. Surgical relief may be necessary.
  • Calcium sulfate caused no lung disease in calcium sulfate miners.

All right, guys, that is it for now for calcium sulfate. I hope Healthsoothe answered any questions you had concerning calcium sulphate. 

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